About Systematic Reviews

Data Extraction Form for
Cross-Sectional Studies

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Researchers in various fields such as medicine and economics may apply cross-sectional studies in their work. The right time to use a cross-sectional study design is when you want to examine the prevalence of some outcome at a moment in time.

Cross-sectional studies can be used as part of a systematic review if they are relevant to the research question. The reviewers can then conduct data extraction to collect study characteristics needed during data analysis in systematic review. The collected data enables reviewers to assess the risk of bias in individual studies and synthesize their findings.

In this article, you’ll learn about data extraction forms for cross-sectional studies.

Sample Data Extraction Form For Cross-Sectional Studies

The following is a sample data extraction form for cross-sectional studies. This form captures important information that may be used in the data analysis stage of systematic review.


  1. Study Design: Cross-sectional
  2. Year of Publication
  3. Country
  4. Sample Size
  5. Age Range
  6. Gender
  7. Setting
  8. Intervention
  9. Outcome Measures
  10. Follow-up Period


  1. Blinding
  2. Randomization
  3. Allocation Concealment
  4. Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria
  5. Loss to Follow-Up
  6. Other Bias


  1. Overall Quality


  1. Descriptive Statistics
  2. Bivariate Analysis
  3. Multivariate Analysis


  1. Primary Outcome
  2. Secondary Outcome
  3. Other Outcomes


  1. Strengths
  2. Limitations
  3. Implications for Practice
  4. Future Research

You’ll notice that this form captures important information on the study characteristics, risk of bias, quality assessment, data analysis, and results. This form can be used as a guide when extracting data from cross-sectional studies for systematic reviews.

When using this form, it is important to note that the information captured may vary depending on the study design, geographical location, and other factors. This form is meant to be a guide and can be modified to fit your specific needs.

Extracting data from cross-sectional studies can be time-consuming. However, using a data extraction form can help improve the data’s consistency, validity, and reliability.

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Data Extraction Methods for Systematic Review

Data extraction is a step in the systematic review process that involves collecting useful data from studies relevant to the research question. The data collected is put into summary and evidence tables describing study characteristics and results. These tables can help you determine which studies are eligible for qualitative synthesis.

There are many data extraction methods in systematic reviews:

1. Form Software

Many researchers use form software for systematic reviews, such as software that helps create a data extraction form. This software can help you create custom forms for descriptive information on population, interventions, outcomes, and quality assessments.

2. Spreadsheet and Database Software

You can also use spreadsheets from Microsoft Excel to create data extraction forms for systematic review processes. Spreadsheet software like Microsoft Excel has functions such as drop-down menus and range checks that may speed up data extraction and reduce data entry errors.

Other database softwares such as Microsoft Access can also boost your data extraction process. It may help you extract data like interventions, outcomes, demographics, and participant selection.

3. Systematic Review Software

Some systematic review software has a data extraction function that can save you a lot of time. With this software, you can create and publish a data extraction template that meets your needs as a reviewer.

Benefits of Using a Data Extraction Form for Cross-Sectional Studies

1. Consistency in Systematic Reviews

Cross-sectional studies may be used in preparing a systematic review. Standardized data extraction forms ensure that data collection by both reviewers is consistent because the form guides them on specific study characteristics to collect.

2. Bias Reduction

The systematic review usually involves at least two reviewers collecting information from separate individual studies to answer a specific research question. The data extraction step in the systematic review process may introduce bias because each reviewer may focus on information they feel is relevant. With a standardized data extraction form, you can reduce this bias because the researchers are guided by the questions on the form.

3. Improved Validity and Reliability

The data collected during the data extraction process is used in the data analysis stage of systematic review. When each reviewer collects similar data from individual cross-sectional studies, the validity and reliability of the systematic review is improved.

Final Thoughts

Standardized data extraction forms help reduce bias in the extraction process of systematic reviews. Data extraction forms enable reviewers to draw similar information from cross-sectional studies and in the process data analysis becomes easier and more accurate.

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